Tulsa Community College partners with students to provide educational opportunities to achieve academic success through accommodations offered by the Education Access Center (EAC) and Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing (RCDHH).
How to Request services:
New Students - Requesting services for the first time must:
- Meet all admissions and academic standards to attend Tulsa Community College.
- Self-identify and submit appropriate professional documentation in accordance with guidelines established by the EAC & RCDHH. Documentation can be:
- Turned in at the time of your intake appointment
- Emailed to: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com
- Mailed to:
Tulsa Community College
Education Access Center, Rm 331B
909 S. Boston Ave
Tulsa, OK 74119
Tulsa Community College
Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing, Rm AB224
3727 E. Apache
Tulsa, OK 74115
- Complete and submit the Accommodation Request Form below. Once you have completed this form, and we have received your documentation, you will be contacted within 48 hours to arrange a meeting:
Returning Students - Complete a Student Service Agreement (SSA) Each Semester.
Returning students who wish to have services for a semester, may request services by completing a Student Service Agreement form. You may obtain the SSA from any EAC location listed on the EAC webpage or from the RCDHH office listed below. You will be asked to update information that has changed and then agree to understanding each of the Student Service Agreement terms by entering your initials.
Interpreter-Captionist -If you need an interpreter or captionist, please use the following form:
Education Access Center
Fall and Spring hours:
Monday thru Thursday: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Friday: 8 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Web page: http://www.tulsacc.edu/eac
Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
Fall and Spring hours:
Monday thru Thursday: 8 a.m. to 6 p.m.
Friday: 10 a.m. to 5 p.m.
Web page: http://www.tulsacc.edu/rcdhh
Disability Documentation Guidelines
Disability Resources (DR) Documentation Guidelines
The Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) has established seven basic principles to serve as the foundation for best practices used by post-secondary institutions in establishing disability documentation guidelines and determining accommodations for students with disabilities. As such, Tulsa Community College is guided by the following principles:
- Documentation should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis, examining the impact of the disability on the student and within the specific context of the request for accommodations;
- Determination of a disability should not require the use of any specific language;
- Presented documentation can be augmented by interview with the student and contact with the evaluator for needed clarification;
- Determination of accommodations is an interactive process and should not be dictated by any one party;
- Documentation of a specific disability does not translate directly into a specific accommodation or set of accommodations;
- Disability documentation should be treated in a confidential manner and shared only on a need-to-know basis;
- Information on the individual's disability is only one component of providing access; increasing overall accessibility through system change may reduce the need for individual accommodations.
- Documentation assists the Education Access Center professional staff member in establishing a student’s disability, understand how the disability may impact a student, and working with the student, make informed decisions about accommodations. Therefore, documentation of a disability should include:
- A diagnostic statement identifying the specific disability(ies), date of the current diagnostic evaluation and date of the original diagnosis;
- A description of the diagnostic criteria used;
- A description of the current functional impact of the disability;
- A description of how the disability affects the student's academic performance;
- A description of the expected progression or stability of the disability;
- Treatments, medications,and assistive devices currently prescribed or in use;
- Recommendations of specific reasonable accommodations needed for the student to participate in classes;
- Documentation must be typed on diagnosing professional’s official letterhead;
- Documentation must be signed and dated by the diagnosing professional and include the credentials of the diagnosing professional(s);
- An Individualized Education Plan (IEP), Section 504 Plan, Summary of Performance (SOP) or Response to Intervention (RtI) will be accepted for verification of disability.
- Accommodations will be determined by an interactive process between the EAC professional staff member and student.
- Documentation or statements written by family members will not be accepted as appropriate professional documentation;
- Documentation will become the property of Tulsa Community College.
- Documentation can only be prepared by a person who is not a family member of the student and who is qualified by professional training and practice to diagnose and treat the impairment leading to the disability. Documentation should be typed or word-processed and printed on the letterhead of either the practitioner or the agency hosting the practice. Handwritten notes on prescription pads or handwritten treatment records will be reviewed by an EAC professional staff member on a case-by-case basis. A high school 504 Plan, Individual Education Plan (IEP), history of Response to Intervention (RtI) or Summary of Performance (SOP) can be used to verify a student’s educational and accommodation history, and assist in determining a student’s accommodations at Tulsa Community College.
- All students attending Tulsa Community College must adhere to the rules and regulations set forth in the STUDENT CODE OF CONDUCT. No documentation will waive TCC's admissions policies, regulations regarding acceptable behavior, or course objectives and requirements.
All documentation of disability submitted to the Education Access Center will be held in confidence and will become the property of Tulsa Community College. Disability documentation provided by a
physician, psychiatrist, psychologist or other recognized professional is not subject to free access under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 (FERPA). The information regarding a student’s disability will be shared by the Education Access Center on a limited basis, and then only when there is a compelling reason for such disclosure. This means that an instructor generally does not have a need to know what the disability of a student is, only that accommodations have been appropriately verified by an Education Access Center professional staff member. Faculty will be notified by written communication from the appropriate Education Access Center every semester with the student’s written permission. Students registered with EAC will hand-deliver notification letters to each of their instructors indicating their approved accommodations. Adapted materials from the Disability Resource Center at the University of Oklahoma and new
Association on Higher Education and Disability (AHEAD) documentation guidelines, 2012.
What Accommodations Really Mean
Accommodations are tools that grant students with disabilities access to educational opportunities. Accommodations are not intended to alter or lower the standards or expectations of a course or exam; they are designed to assist students in learning the same material and meet the same expectations as their classmates who do not have a disability. In certain cases, the EAC needs professional documentation to support the request of certain accommodations.
Examples of Accommodations
- Alternative Format Books – Alternate format books include instructional materials, textbooks, and/or other reading materials presented in formats that are accessible by individuals with disabilities. Examples of alternate format books include audio books and books in PDF formats. Students requesting alternative format books should contact the EAC prior to the start of a semester.
- Assistive Technology and Training – Assistive technology refers to software or various tools that help people who have difficulty speaking, typing, writing, hearing, and/or seeing. Examples of assistive technology includes Assistive Listening Devices, Dragon Naturally Speaking, Screen Readers, among others. Individual assistance or training on assistive technology is available by appointment only.
- Reduced-Distraction and/or Extended Exam Time – Instructor exams, as well as the Accuplacer are administered in different reduced-distraction environments located on each TCC campus. Depending on the nature of the disability, students can test for a longer period of time. All exams are administered by appointment only.
- Reading and Scribing – EAC staff members are qualified to read an exam to a student and/or write his/her answers based on professional documentation. Readers and scribers are available as needed for exams by appointment, and they are not responsible for ensuring proper grammar and punctuation.
- Special Seating – Reserved seating, adjustable desks and/or chairs are available for students registered with the EAC based on the student’s disability. Special seating can be placed in different locations of a classroom, e.g., front row, center, depending on the need. Special seating is also arranged through the EAC for any TCC event.
- Note-taker – A note-taker is a qualified individual whose job it is to take notes for students who, due to their disability, find it difficult to take notes for themselves. The EAC provides note-taking paper and assistance with recruitment of note-takers in the classroom. Students who would like to record class lectures may check out a digital recorder from the appropriate EAC Counselor.
- Interpreting Services - Sign Language interpreters are available to deaf and hard of hearing students to facilitate communication in the classroom and other college activities.
- Speech-to-Text Services - are provided to facilitate real time access to students in the classroom and other college activities.
- Assistive Listening Devices - For hard of hearing or late-deafened students, we have a number of assistive listening devices, which may be checked out for use. Specialized stethoscopes can be checked out on a trial basis.
- Tutoring Services for students with hearing impairments - Open lab tutoring times are scheduled each semester. Students may also request individual tutoring through the Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing.
Please contact the Education Access Center or Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing to request accommodations and services for classes and TCC activities.
How To Register For Services
New Students - Requesting services for the first time:
- Meet all admissions and academic standards to attend Tulsa Community College.
- Self-identify and submit appropriate professional documentation in accordance with guidelines established by the EAC at Tulsa Community College's Metro Campus. Documentation can be turned in at the time of your intake appointment.
Documentation can also be:
Emailed to: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mailed to: Tulsa Community College
Education Access Center, Room 331B
909 S. Boston Ave
Tulsa, OK 74115
- Complete and submit the Accommodation Request Form. Once you have completed this form, and we have received your documentation, you will be contacted within 48 hours to arrange a meeting.
Returning Students - Complete a Student Service Agreement Each Semester.
Returning students who wish to have services for a semester, may request services by completing a Student Service Agreement form. You will be asked to update information that has changed and then agree to understanding each of the Student Service Agreement terms by entering your initials.
TCC Foundation Scholarships: including the Pam McGowan Scholarship
The Pam McGowan scholarship application is part of the TCC Foundation Scholarship Application system. The link below will take you to the application system where you will create a scholarship account if you haven't done so already--it may indicate that it is a survey, but it is an application. You may be asked to use your TCC credentials to sign in before being redirected the application system. Once you have completed the application, the system will automatically submit your information for all available TCC scholarships for which you qualify. Follow the link and create your scholarship account as soon as possible.
The Pam McGowan scholarship
The Education Access Center (EAC) and Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing is proud to present the 2019 Pamela McGowan Scholarship. Five (5) students will be selected to receive one (1) - $500 scholarship to be used for tuition, fees, books, and academic (tutoring) assistance for the Spring 2019 semester. These scholarships are generously and graciously funded by the TCC Foundation as a means of creating an educational environment that fosters academic success and removes educational barriers from college students.
TCC students with a documented learning, emotional or physical disability:
- who are registered with the Education Access Center or Resource Center for the Deaf and Hard of Hearing
- have a 2.5 GPA
- are currently enrolled in at least 6 credit hours
When Does the Application Process Start?
We are currently accepting applications. The applicant is responsible for ensuring that all items are submitted electronically or in person by October 1st 2018. Recipients of the Pamela McGowan EAC Scholarship will be notified via email.
To make the application process easier, have the items below available before starting:
- A statement indicating personal, professional and career goals
- A statement indicating extra-curricular Activities
- A statement indicating self-advocacy and self-determination strategies used in high school and college
- A statement indicating the impact that the Education Access Center has had on continuing your education
- A statement indicating the impact of your disability on your educational goals
- The contact information, i.e., full name (first and last), email address, and telephone number (with area code) of a professor, current employer, minister, vocational rehabilitation professional, or director/academic counselor not affiliated with the Education Access Center who can provide a letter of recommendation. Please notify this individual of your application for the Pamela McGowan Scholarship so that he/she can be aware of an email that will be sent to him/her requesting this letter.
Resources: Handouts and Booklets
Handouts and Booklets
Oklahoma AHEAD: Differences between High School and Post-Secondary - Students with Disabilities Transition from High School to College
Resources - Accessibility Law, Responsibilities, and Information
The Department of Education has information regarding student transition from high-school to post-secondary institutions and rights and responsibilities for students and post-secondary institutions.
- Questions and answers on disability discrimination under Section 504 and Title II.
United States Department of Education Office of Civil Rights Publication. More and more high school students with disabilities are planning to continue their education in post-secondary schools, including vocational and career schools, two and four-year colleges, and universities. As a student with a disability, you need to be well informed about your rights and responsibilities as well as the responsibilities post-secondary schools have toward you. Being well informed will help ensure you have a full opportunity to enjoy the benefits of the post-secondary education experience without confusion or delay. Knowing your Rights and Responsibilities.
- Students with Disabilities Preparing for Post-secondary Education
- Auxiliary Aids and Services for Post-secondary Students with Disabilities: Higher Education's Obligations Under Section 504 and Title II of the ADA
- Department of Education Issues Dear Colleague Letter to Provide Guidance Under Amended ADA Legal Standards
The "Dear Colleague Letter" provides Guidance Under Amended Legal Standards. The Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights has issued a Dear Colleague letter concerning the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act. The letter provides additional guidance on the requirements of the Americans with Disabilities Act and Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act in elementary and secondary schools, given the changes to those laws made by the Amendments Act.
The ADA home page offers information and technical assistance on the Americans with Disabilities Act.
- Revised ADA Requirements: Service Animals
- Testing Accommodations
- Guidance on the 2010 ADA Standards for Accessible Design
The Disability Rights Section works to achieve equal opportunity for people with disabilities in the United States by implementing the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Oklahoma's EITA law reflects an ongoing commitment to provide access to information resources and technologies to individuals with disabilities.
Ability Resources: "Our mission is to assist people with disabilities in attaining and maintaining their personal independence. One way this can be achieved is in the creation of an environment in which people with disabilities can exercise their rights to control and direct their own lives."
OK-AHEAD's Mission: "To further full participation for individuals with disabilities in Oklahoma post-secondary education through collaboration, information dissemination, advocacy, professional and policy development, and research, Oklahoma Association on Higher Education and Disability continues its mission for disability service providers and the students they serve."
The ODC is an independent state agency whose purpose is to help state government develop policies and services that meet the needs of Oklahomans with disabilities. The ODC serves as a resource, to people with disabilities, who want to present their views and recommendations to the Governor, the State Legislature and State agencies.
Resources: Why & How - Making Information and Communication Technology (Websites, Electronic Documents, Videos, Audio) Accessible
Why do we have to make Information and Communication Technology (ICT) section 508 accessible?
- It is the Law under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Federal Rehabilitation act Sections 504 & 508, and Oklahoma's Electronic and Information Technology Accessibility (EITA) act. Section 508 does not directly apply to Higher Ed. however, because we receive federal funding and because Oklahoma's EITA is based on Section 508 and because 508 has been changed to align with international standards, it is an appropriate measure and guide for gauging and implementing web accessibility.
- We accept federal funding & like it.
- Students like going to accredited schools.
- Lawsuits are expensive.
- Having to add accessibility may be time consuming, difficult and impossible.
- Making ICT accessible makes it more accessible for all.
Is it ICT?
Generally speaking it is information in electronic form, e.g: Word documents, PowerPoints, PDF's, Online Surveys, E-mail and Websites, tools to make the aforementioned, and the hardware or technology used to present and allow interaction. More from the Access-Board.gov ICT Refresh Final Rule: Text of the Standards and Guidelines Section E103, roughly paragraph 17:
"...Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Information technology and other equipment, systems, technologies, or processes, for which the principal function is the creation, manipulation, storage, display, receipt, or transmission of electronic data and information, as well as any associated content. Examples of ICT include, but are not limited to: computers and peripheral equipment; information kiosks and transaction machines; telecommunications equipment; customer premises equipment; multi-function office machines; software; applications; Web sites; videos; and, electronic documents..."
Who is responsible for making or ensuring that ICT is accessible?
Generally, accessibility is everyone's job. More specifically related to ICT, it is the responsibility of the creator, developer, acquirer, or purchaser of ICT.
What does accessible mean?
"The standards developed by the Access Board explain the detailed technical and functional performance criteria that will determine whether a technology product or system is `accessible.'
In general, an information technology system is accessible to people with disabilities if it can be used in a variety of ways that do not depend on a single sense or ability. For example, a system that provides output only in audio format would not be accessible to people with hearing impairments, and a system that requires mouse actions to navigate would not be accessible to people who cannot use a mouse because of a dexterity or visual impairment. Section 508 focuses on the overall accessibility of electronic and information technology systems, not on providing accommodations at individual worksites. Section 501 (504 for TCC) of the Rehabilitation Act requires Federal agencies to provide reasonable accommodations for individuals with disabilities; it generally covers individual worksites but not overall technology systems. Even with an accessible system, individuals with disabilities may still need specific accessibility-related software or peripheral devices as an accommodation to be able to use it. For example, in order to use an accessible word-processing program, a person who is blind may need add-on software that reads text aloud; if the word-processing program could not be made compatible with a screen-reading program, it might not be accessible."
How do you know if a website or electronic document is accessible?
Typically you are either planning to create ICT or you are looking at existing ICT. If you are planning ICT you have the advantage of being able to reference
- U.S. Access Board standards and guidelines
- Section508.gov - Create Accessible Digital Products
- W3C WAI Making the Web Accessible
- Additional links to tools, guides, and tutorials listed below
If you are looking at existing ICT you can first check it for accessibility before deciding to use it. Checking can start with an automated tool, but at this point in time you still have to do manual checks. A short list of guides and tools for creating and checking ICT is available below.
Blackboard 9.1 Accessibility
- Design Accessible Content
- Accessibility Features
- Best Practice: Formatting Accessible Documents
- Best Practice: Using Tests With JAWS
- Blackboard Accessibility
Electronic Document Accessibility (PDF's Word Documents, PowerPoints, ... etc.)
- NCDAE.org Cheetsheets/Guides for creating accessible content (Word, PowerPoint, PDF's.
- Microsoft Accessibility - Training Videos and Tutorials.
- Microsoft Office - Accessibility Checker:
- Microsoft - Office 365: Accessibility.
- Microsoft - Make your Word documents accessible.
- Microsoft - Make your PowerPoint documents accessible.
- Microsoft - Make your Excel spreadsheets accessible.
- Microsoft - Make your Outlook email accessible.
- Microsoft - Make your Skype for Business meetings more accessible.
- Microsoft - Create accessible PDF's.
- Office Accessibility Center - Resources for people with disabilities.
- PDF- Adobe Acrobat - Create and verify PDF accessibility (Acrobat Pro).
- PAC 2 - PDF Accessibility Checker.
- National Clearinghouse of Rehabilitation Training Materials (NCRTM)
- WebAIM - PDF Accessibility: Acrobat and Accessibility.
- European Internet Inclusion Initiative - eAccessibility checker (Still under development. Good for PDF's and HTML).
Most Microsoft Office products should allow you to create accessible math. In case there is a need for additional tools:
- AsciiMATH - One method for providing math equation accessibility is using ASCII Math.
- Equations written in AsciiMath are easily read by screen readers and Braille display devices.
- Writing your equations in AsciiMath format will usually allow you to enter them into equation editors such as those within Microsoft Word.
- MathType - ask Disability Resources about MathType:
"MathType is a powerful interactive equation editor for Windows and Macintosh that lets you create mathematical notation for word processing, web pages, desktop publishing, presentations, E-learning, and for TeX, LaTeX, and MathML documents."
We are currently experimenting with this product. Full-time instructors can have it installed; however, at present, the only explanation is the documentation provided by Design Science.
There is more to this than the Voluntary Product Accessibility Template (VPAT). Anyone who makes purchases for an institution, not just the purchasing department, is a purchasing agent. By law, It is your responsibility as a purchasing agent to make sure that the ICT you are acquiring is accessible.
A VPAT does not automatically make the ICT accessible. You have to do some checking. Here is advise, questions and guides that other institutions have developed to help you verify ICT product accessibility.
Stockton University has a page called Evaluating Publisher Content for Accessibility in which you will find an excellent set of questions for checking specific aspects of publisher content including: Accessibility Documentation, Product support, Instructional web site, Video based content, Audio based content, Hard copy text, Electronic text, Data/document repositories, Interactive tools and simulations, and finally, accessibility links for major publishers.
Video & Audio Accessibility
- Audio Description - Webinars from 3Playmedia.
- Captioning & related webinars- 3Playmedia.
- Captioning - YouTube Do-it-yourself transcription & translations (Captions &a/mp; Description).
- Captioning - NCDAE.org Captioning YouTube videos.
- Captions, Transcripts, and Audio Descriptions - WebAIM.
Create Closed Captions using Dragon Naturally Speaking (DNS) and YouTube - Iowa State University - Covers:
- Converting Video to Audio using Video Lan Client.
- Transcribing in DNS. The EAC has DNS. Please contact the EAC for more info.
- Retraining Dragon Naturally Speaking.
- Syncing Transcription to Video using YouTube.
Besides video, audio also needs to be accessible:
- Providing a transcript of the audio or,
- Recording or converting the audio as/to a video and captioning it.
Tools for converting voice or speech-to-text.
- Article from Make Use Of: The Best (Free) Speech-to-Text Software for Windows.
- Identifying Web Accessibility Issues - NCDAE.org.
- The page includes a video. If you have problems viewing it, try viewing the video on YouTube.com.
- Testing Web Content for Accessibility - WebAIM - Quick Reference .
- How to do an Accessibility Review - Google.
- Keyboard Accessibility info/guide from WebAIM.org.
- General info about Accessibility Evaluation tools - WebAIM. You will have to perform manual checks. Remember: Do not rely on fully automated tools to check for accessibility. They can not perform important checks such as: keyboard navigation, form accessibility, text contrast with backgrounds, important text embedded in pictures (pictures of text) and others.
- Accessible Form Controls, techniques, Advanced Form Labeling and Form Validation:
- Form Accessibility: General info/guide from WebAIM.org.
- Form Accessibility: Accessible form controls.
- Form Accessibility: Usable and Accessible Form Validation and Error Recovery.
- Error Identification: WCAG 2.0 - Understanding Success Criteria 3.3.1:
- P.O.U.R.: Constructing a Perceivable, Operable, Usable, Robust (POUR) Website - from WebAIM.org.
- Web Accessibility for Designers - from WebAIM.org.
- WC3 - How to Meet WCAG 2.0: A customizable quick reference to Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.0 requirements (success criteria) and
- techniques: This is what Section 508 is based upon. WCAG 2.0 Level AA is what the Access Board has decided upon for new Section 508 standards.
Resources: How to get textbooks in ebook, etext or digital formats.
BEFORE YOU BUY BOOKS...
If you are enrolled and need alternative textbooks, audio or ebooks, please start with option 1. If you are unable to acquire an ebook by using options 1 and 2, and you have a documented print-related disability, then option 3 is the step to take. If you are looking for an audio book, most ebook, etext or Digital Editions can be read aloud by software or hardware, and can be searched. Publishers and book sellers may also have software or a web application on their site that you sign into for reading the ebooks.
Book may be included with course. Often textbook is indicated as "all inclusive" or "includED" which means that it will be provided at the book publisher's Learning Portal which is usually accessed through Blackboard. After paying for classes, you should receive an email with a link to the publisher's website and a code. These ebooks typically are searchable and have some accessibility features including font size and a read aloud feature. You can often add an extension to your web browser to allow you to change text to white text on a black background. Fonts in your web browser can also be changed to help with dyslexia, dyscalculia, and dysgraphia
Look for the ebook online that may already be available for your class. Search using the book title and edition or search using the ISBN. ISBN numbers - are 10 or 13 digit numbers used for uniquely identifying the book. You might find them in your class syllabus, or within the first four to ten pages of book(s), or when you go to TCC's bookstore to lookup book using class schedule info.
Vital Source - etext search and features along with accessibility explained. Good source for accessible eTextbook.
Vital Source Special Request - Form for Assistance needed with contacting the publisher to find an Accessible eTextbook or file.
AHA Press Store, Digital - Medical Coding including ebook format. ICD-10-CM and ICD-10-PCS Coding Handbook.
Optum360 Coding - Medical Coding including ebook format. ICD-10-CM Professional for Hospitals.
Campusbooks.com - Great site for finding low prices for rental and purchase.
Kindle apps: Audio Accessibility Features.
- Listen to an Audio Companion.
- Kindle for PC Accessibility Features.
- Kindle for PC Keyboard Shortcuts.
- Kindle for Mac Keyboard Shortcuts.
Chegg eTextbooks. - Not Accessible.
If you have a documented print-related disability, and you can't find an accessible ebook (software can read it out loud) or audio book for your class, please email your ebook and audio book requests to email@example.com.
Please start the subject line with:
[ebook request] you could Iist your ISBN's here if you want.
Publishers want to see that someone has purchased the book before sending an accessible copy. Accessible formats may be available, but they are not free. We will need to see the Book and receipt. You can present these at any EAC or RCDHH location. We can scan the receipts, and record your information and book information. If you can't make it to an EAC office, take a legible photo of the receipt with book cover. Reply to this email and attach the photos.
In the Body of your email please include:
- First and Last name
- Your College Wide ID.
- Book Titles and editions
- ISBN numbers - are 10 or 13 digit numbers used for uniquely identifying the book. You might find them in your class syllabus, or within the first four to ten pages of book(s), or when you go to TCC's bookstore to lookup book using class schedule info.
Students can purchase or rent books/etextbooks from places such as Vital Source or Amazon and our Bookstore -- usually in PDF format. Students can cut-out the middle man (EAC) by checking these places before buying printed textbooks or contacting the EAC.